Home to six time zones, its endless plains spread from ocean to ocean, dominating great swathes of the northern half of the globe.
But, in reality, three Canadas would comfortably fit inside Africa.
Our world map is wildly misleading.
It’s all down to the European cartographer Geert de Kremer, better known as Mercator, and his 16th century map projection.
While a convenient way to chart the world, the map distorts the true size of countries.
“Most of us have grown up with this world image.”
Made for captains
The 1569 Mercator projection was made for navigating the seas — drawing the meridians and parallels as straight lines that cross at right angles helped sailors to navigate some of the their first treacherous voyages around the world.
Mercator initially made globes. Later transferring his map from a three-dimensional curved surface to a flat sheet of paper was problematic. Taking the equator as the logical map center left big, confusing gaps near the poles.
Mercator’s solution was to stretch out the northern and southern extremities of the globe to fill those gaps, producing an elegant and usable map.
While a revolutionary tool for captains and explorers, the projection distorts the relative size of the continents, to the advantage of the West.
The repercussions of this are still being felt today.
A map made by Europe for Europe
On the Mercator map, Africa — sitting on the equator, reasonably undistorted — is left looking much smaller than it really is.
But Canada, Russia, the United States and Europe are greatly enlarged.
The distortion is largest near the poles: Greenland, which looks about the same size as the whole of Africa on the Mercator, is a classic example. In truth, it is no bigger than the Democratic Republic of Congo.
“If you would take a map projection with equal areas then there is almost no space on the map to display all [these details].”
There was, of course, much to map in Africa, too, but that mattered less to the cartographers up north, he adds.
A political tool?
One of the dangers of the Mercator map is that it can make enlarged countries seem unnaturally powerful and intimidating.
“The term ‘power of representation and representation of power’ sums up quite well how maps and the rise of the Western nation-state system — and with that, empire and colonialism — are linked,” says Marianne Franklin, professor of Global Media and Politics at Goldsmiths, University of London.
“The world maps that prevail today have been embedded in Western imaginations since the British empire. They continue (to prevail) despite many challenges to their fairness and accuracy because they underpin the ongoing Anglo-Euro-American presumption that the world belongs to them, and pivots around these geo-cultural axes,” Franklin says.
In more recent times, maps have been used for propaganda, adds Kraak.
Take Russia, for example.
“If you take the Mercator projection, where Russia looks huge, give it a bright red color and then compare it to the rest of Europe, you see how dangerous it can look,” says Kraak.